Section 504 - Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
AA - Alternate Assessment
ADA - Americans with Disabilities Act
A.D.A. - Average Daily Attendance
ADD - Attention Deficit Disorder
ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
AT - Assistive Technology
BIP - Behavioral Intervention Plan
CALP - Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
CAP - Corrective Action Plan
CEIS - Comprehensive Early Intervening Services
C.F.R. - Code of Federal Regulations
CIP - Continuous Improvement Plan
DD - Developmental Delay
DHW - Department of Health and Welfare
DJC - Department of Juvenile Corrections
DR - Dispute Resolution
EBD Emotional Behavioral Disorder
ECSE - Early Childhood Special Education
ESEA - Elementary and Secondary Education Act
ESSA - Every Student Succeeds Act
ESY - Extended School Year
FAPE - Free and Appropriate Public Education
FBA - Functional Behavioral Assessment
FERPA - Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
GED -General Education Development
IAES - Interim Alternative Educational Setting
IBI - Intensive Behavioral Interventions
IDAPA - Idaho Administrative Procedures Act
IDEA - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IDELR - Individuals with Disabilities Education Law Report
IEE - Independent Educational Evaluation
IEP - Individual Education Program
IFSP - Individual Family Services Plan
IPUL - Idaho Parents Unlimited, Inc.
IQ - Intelligence Quotient
ISAT - Idaho Standards Achievement Test
ITP - Infant/Toddler Program
JDC - Juvenile Detention Center
LEA - Local Education Agency
LEP - Limited English Proficiency
LI - Language Impairment
LD - Learning Disability
LRE - Least Restrictive Environment
MTSS - Multi-Tiered System of Support
OCR - Office of Civil Rights
OHI - Other Health Impaired
OI - Orthopedic Impairment
OT - Occupational Therapy
PBIS - Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
PBS - Positive Behavioral Supports
PEC - Parent Education Coordinator (Staff at IPUL)
PII - Personally Identifiable Information
PLAAFP - Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (Also
known as PLOP for Present Levels of Performance)
PLOP - Present Levels of Performance (Also known as PLAAFP for Present Levels of
Academic Achievement and Functional Performance)
PT - Physical Therapy
PTI - Parent Training and Information Center
RTI - Response to Intervention
SCI - Significant Cognitive Impairment
SD - Standard Deviation
SDE - State Department of Education
SEA - State Education Agency
SEAP - Special Education Advisory Panel
SI - Speech Impairment
SLD - Specific Learning Disability
SP - Services Plan
SS - Standard Score
TBI - Traumatic Brain Injury
VI -Visual Impairment
WIOA - Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act
WOA - Work of Art, an IPUL program
Academic achievement. A student’s level of performance in basic school subjects, measured either formally or informally.
Accommodation. Changes in the curriculum, instruction, or testing format or procedures that enable students with disabilities to participate in a way that allows them to demonstrate their abilities rather than disabilities. Accommodations are generally considered to include assistive technology as well as changes in presentation, response, timing, scheduling, and settings that do not fundamentally alter the requirements. Accommodations do not invalidate assessment results and do not fundamentally alter the requirements (or course expectations).
Adaptation. Changes to curriculum, instruction, or assessments that fundamentally alter the requirements, but that enable a student with a disability that significantly impacts performance an opportunity to participate. Adaptations include strategies such as reading the reading portion of a test, using spelling/grammar check for language arts assessments, and substituting out-of-level testing. Adaptations fundamentally alter requirements and invalidate assessment results and provide non-comparable results.
Adaptive behavior. Behavior that displays an age-appropriate level of self-sufficiency and social responsibility which includes the following areas: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, or safety.
Adverse Impact (adverse effect). A determination made by the evaluation team that the student’s progress is impeded by the disability to the extent that their educational performance is significantly and consistently below the level of similar age peers, preventing the student from benefitting from general education. The phrases “adverse impact” and “adverse effect” are used interchangeably in this Manual and have the same meaning. See also “educational performance.”
Adult student. A student with a disability, age eighteen (18) or older, to whom rights have transferred under the IDEA and Idaho Code, and who has not been deemed legally incompetent by a court or deemed ineligible to give informed consent by the IEP team.
Age-appropriate activities. Activities that typically-developing children of the same age would be performing or would have achieved.
Age of majority. The age at which, by law, a child assumes the responsibilities of an adult. In Idaho, the age of majority is eighteen (18).
Aggregated data. Information that is considered as a whole. In this Manual, the term refers to collective data on all students, including students with disabilities.
Alternate assessment. An academic assessment based on alternate academic achievement standards that have been reduced in depth and complexity from the Idaho Content Standards. The alternate assessment (AA) is intended only for those students with the most significant cognitive impairments, representing about 1% of the total student population.
Alternative school. A public school placement option that may be utilized for students who are not succeeding in the traditional school environment but may benefit through the use of modified curriculum or flexible programming.
Articulation. The ability to speak distinctly and connectedly.
Articulation disorder. Incorrect productions of speech sounds, including omissions, distortions, substitutions and/or additions that may interfere with intelligibility.
American with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. A federal law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, State and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, and telecommunications. An individual with a disability is defined by the ADA as a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such an impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment. The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered.
Assessment. The formal or informal process of systematically observing, gathering, and recording credible information to help answer evaluation questions and make decisions. It is an integral component of the evaluation process. A test is one method of obtaining valid and reliable information within the assessment process. Assessment data may also include observations; interviews; medical reports; data regarding the effects of general education accommodations, adaptations, and interventions; and other formal or informal data.
Assistive technology device. Any item, piece of equipment, or product system whether acquired commercially, off a shelf, modified, or customized that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability. Excludes surgically implanted medical devices.
Assistive technology service. Any service that directly assists a student with a disability with the assessment, selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. The term includes the evaluation of the need of the student; purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices; selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing devices; coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs; training or technical assistance for a student and/or family; and training or technical assistance for professionals, employers, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of the student.
Attention deficit disorder (ADD). A biologically based mental disorder that has these typical characteristics: short attention span; distractive behavior; difficulty following directions and staying on task; and an inability to focus behavior. The disorder compromises many skills needed for academic success, including starting, following through with, and completing tasks; moving from task to task; and following directions.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A biologically based mental disorder in which a person has inappropriate degrees of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity.
Audiologist. A licensed health care professional who diagnoses and supports management of hearing loss, counseling to auditory needs across environments, and fitting of hearing technology.
Autism. A disability category in which a developmental disability, generally evident before age three (3), significantly affects verbal or nonverbal communication skills and social interactions and adversely affects educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism include engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.
Basic reading skills. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, includes sight word recognition, phonics, and word analysis. Essential skills include identification of individual sounds and the ability to manipulate them, identification of printed letters and sounds associated with letters, and decoding of written language.
Behavioral intervention plan (BIP). A plan comprising practical and specific strategies designed to increase or reduce a definable behavior. These strategies address preventative techniques, teaching replacement behaviors, how to respond or resolve behaviors, and crisis management, if necessary.
Benchmark. A major milestone which describes the progress the student is expected to make toward annual goals within a specified period of time. Similar to an objective.
Braille. A tactile system of reading and writing, used by students who are blind or visually impaired, with an official code composed of Braille characters or cells that consist of various patterns of raised dots corresponding to alphabetic letters, punctuation marks and other symbols.
Business day. A workday (Monday through Friday) except for federal and state holidays, unless specifically included.
Calendar day. Used interchangeably with day unless otherwise indicated as a business day or a school day.
Case manager. A member of the evaluation and/or IEP team (usually the special education teacher) who is designated to perform administrative functions for the team, including: (1) setting up meetings; (2) ensuring appropriate forms are completed; (3) ensuring timelines are met; and (4) includes the responsibility of coordinating and overseeing the implementation of the IEP.
Change of placement. A change in educational placement relates to whether the student is moved from one type of educational program -- i.e., regular class -- to another type -- i.e., home instruction. Or it may also occur when there is a significant change in the student's educational program even if the student remains in the same setting.
Change of placement for disciplinary reasons. A removal from the current educational placement for more than ten (10) consecutive school days or a series of removals that constitute a pattern when they total more than ten (10) school days in a school year. Factors such as the length of the removal, the proximity of the removals to one another, the total amount of time the student is removed are indicators of a pattern, and whether the child’s behavior is substantially similar to the child’s behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals.
Charter school within a district. A publicly funded, nonprofit, nonsectarian public school that is created by a formal agreement (charter) between the charter board of directors and the board of trustees of the local school district and operates independently within the district. It is governed by the conditions of its approved charter, performance certificate, and federal and state laws. It is the responsibility of the local district to ensure that students attending such charter schools receive appropriate services as required by IDEA and Section 504of the ADA.
Charter school LEA. A publicly funded, nonprofit, nonsectarian public school that operates as its own local education agency (LEA) or district. Charter LEAs may be authorized by the local school district or the Idaho Public Charter School Commission. Charter LEAs are required to provide services in accordance with IDEA and, Section 504 of the ADA.
Child. An individual who has not attained age eighteen (18).
Child count. For purposes of the annual report required under IDEA, the State must count and report the number of children with disabilities receiving special education and related services on any date between October 1 and December 1 of each year.
Child find. A process to locate, identify, and evaluate individuals ages three (3) to twenty-one (21) who are suspected of having a disability and in need of special education.
Civil action. A judicial action that any party who is aggrieved by the final decision of a due process hearing officer may bring in either a federal district court or a state court of competent jurisdiction (as designated by Idaho law).
Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). CALP refers to language used during formal academic instruction and learning. CALP skills include listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material, and are essential to school success. It may take five to seven years for an English language learner to develop CALP.
Compensatory education. Educational services or remedies which are above and beyond those normally due a student under the State’s education law. The principle is acknowledged by most courts that have considered the issue to be an appropriate equitable remedy when a student has been denied free appropriate public education. Services that would put the student in the same position had they not been denied a FAPE.
Complaint. (State complaint) A formal, written, and signed statement submitted to the Idaho State Department of Education by an individual or organization that contains one or more allegations and the facts on which the statement is based that a district or agency has violated a requirement of IDEA within the last year (365 days).
Coordinated early intervening services (CEIS). Services for students (K-12) who need additional academic and behavioral support to succeed in a general education environment. These students have not been identified has having a disability under the IDEA.
Consensus. Following the opportunity for each member to provide input and gain clarification, the resulting outcome where each member agrees to support the decision of the group. Consensus is both the general agreement to support the decision, and the process of reaching such agreement to support the decision.
Consent. Voluntary, written approval of a proposed activity, as indicated by a parent/adult student signature. The parent/adult student must be fully informed of all relevant information in his or her native language or other mode of communication and must understand all information relevant to the activity to make a rational decision.
Conservator. A person appointed by the court to handle financial decisions for a person who is incapacitated or debilitated. In Idaho the conservator has all of the powers conferred in Idaho Statute 15-5-424 and any additional powers conferred by law on trustees in this state. In addition, a conservator of the estate of an unmarried minor under the age of eighteen (18) years, as to whom no one has parental rights, has the duties and powers of a guardian of a minor described in section 15-5-209 of this code until the minor attains the age of eighteen (18) or marries, but the parental rights so conferred on a conservator do not preclude appointment of a guardian as provided by part 2 of this chapter, Idaho Statute 15-5-424.
Controlled substance. Any drug so designated by law whose availability is restricted; i.e., so designated by federal Controlled Substances Acts. Included in such classifications are narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and marijuana. (See Schedule I, II, III, IV or V in section (c) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812(c))
Core academic subjects. These include English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography under the ESEA.
Core Content Connectors. Alternate academic achievement standards in English/Language Art and Mathematics aligned with the Idaho Content Standards, which have been reduced in depth and complexity. The Idaho alternate assessment in English/Language Arts and Mathematics are based on these standards.
Corrective action plan (CAP). A plan that orders a district as a result of an IDEA complaint to take corrective actions to resolve legal deficiency as found by the SDE.
Critical life skill. Skills that lead to independent functioning. Development of these skills can lead to reduced dependency on future caretakers and enhance students’ integration with individuals without disabilities. Skills may include such things as toileting, feeding, mobility, communication, dressing, self-help, and social/emotional functioning.
Dangerous weapon. A weapon, device, instrument, material, or substance, animate or inanimate, that is used for, or is readily capable of causing death or serious bodily injury, except that such term does not include a pocket knife with a blade of less than 2 ½ inches in length.
Data-based decision making. The collecting of information that can be charted or graphed to document performance over time followed by an analysis of the information to determine needed changes in instruction, policies, programs, or procedures.
Day. Refers to a calendar day unless otherwise indicated as a business or school day.
Deaf-blindness. An IDEA disability category in which a student demonstrates hearing and visual impairments, and where the combination of these two disabilities causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that the student cannot be accommodated with special education services designed solely for students with deafness or blindness.
Deaf or Hard of Hearing. A child with a hearing loss, whether permanent or fluctuating, that impairs the access, comprehension, and/or use of linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, and that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Detained youth. Anyone aged three (3) through twenty-one (21) who is being held for a crime regardless of whether or not that person has appeared before the court.
Developmental achievement. Gains a student makes which follow the pedagogic theory that all children learn in the same basic way and in the same sequence, although at different rates.
Developmental delay. An IDEA disability category used only for students ages three (3) through nine (9) for whom a significant delay exists in one or more of the following skill areas: receptive/expressive language; cognitive abilities; gross/fine motor functioning; social/emotional development; or self-help/adaptive functioning. The use of this category is optional for districts.
Disaggregated data. Information that is reported and/or considered separately on the basis of a particular characteristic. In this Manual, the term refers to data on special education students as a group that are reported and/or considered separately from the same data on all students in a school, district, or state.
Discipline. Actions taken in response to a student’s violation of the student conduct code.
Disclosure. The access to or the release, transfer, or other communication of education records or personally identifiable information contained in these records by oral, written, electronic, or other means.
Disproportionality. A disparity or inequality. In this Manual, the term refers to a statistical range of data where students of a specific race or ethnicity are identified in either greater or fewer numbers than expected when compared to the representation of that race or ethnicity within the general school population. The areas addressed in the IDEA are: (1) identification as a student with a disability; (2) identification of a student with a specific category of disability; and (3) placement in a particular educational setting and (4) the incidence, duration of any type of disciplinary actions, including suspensions and expulsions.
District. A local educational agency (LEA) inclusive of the following terms: a local district, a state authorized charter school, a state operated program, and a traditional school. See also “LEA.”
Dropout. A student who has voluntarily left an education system before completion of requirements and is not known to be enrolled in any other educational program.
Dual enrollment. A child of school-age who is enrolled in a nonpublic school (including a homeschool) or a public charter school and enrolled in a public school to participate in public school programs and activities, Idaho Statue 33-203. See also “nonpublic school” and “nonpublic student.”
Due process hearing. An administrative hearing conducted by an SDE-appointed hearing officer to resolve disputes on any matter related to identification, evaluation, educational placement, or the provision of a free appropriate public education under the IDEA.
Educational performance. A student’s educational performance in achievement, developmental, and/or functional skills.
Education record. A student’s record containing personally identifiable information maintained by an educational agency or institution, or by a party acting for the agency or institution, which may include, but is not limited to print, handwriting, computer media, video or audio tape, film, microfilm, and microfiche, but is not within the exceptions set out in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). The documents in the education record used to determine current eligibility and monitor current progress are considered part of the education record and are maintained. Items in the educational record that are no longer used, or have been summarized, may be removed from the educational record after written parental notification.
Educational services agency, other public institution or agencies. (1) An educational service agency, as defined in 34 CFR §300.12; and (2) Any other public institution or agency having administrative control and direction of a public elementary school or secondary school, including a public nonprofit charter school that is established as an LEA under State law.
Elementary school. The term “elementary school” means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public elementary charter school, that provides elementary education, as determined under State law, 34 CFR §300.13. An elementary school includes a grade configuration of grades one (1) through eight (8) inclusive, or any combination thereof, Section 33-116, Idaho Code.
Eligibility/evaluation team. A group of people, including the parent/adult student, charged with the responsibility to make decisions regarding evaluation, assessments, and eligibility. This team includes the same membership as the IEP team (although not necessarily the same individuals) and other qualified professionals, as appropriate.
Emotional behavioral disorder. An IDEA disability category in which a student has a condition exhibiting one or more of five behavioral or emotional characteristics over a long period of time, and to a marked degree, that adversely affects educational performance. The term does not include students who are socially maladjusted unless it is determined they have an emotional behavioral disorder. The term emotional behavioral disorder does include students who are diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Essential Components of Reading Instruction. The term means explicit and systematic instruction in (1) phonemic awareness, (2) phonics, (3) vocabulary development, (4) reading fluency, including oral reading skills, and (5) reading comprehension strategies.
Evaluation. A term that means using all required procedures to determine whether a child has a disability and the nature and extent of the special education and related services that the child needs.
Expedited due process hearing. An administrative hearing conducted by an SDE-appointed hearing officer to resolve disputes concerning discipline for which shortened timelines are in effect in accordance with the IDEA.
Expulsion. Removal of a student from school for an extended period of time. For general education students, services usually cease during an expulsion.
Extended school year (ESY). A program to provide special education and related services to an eligible student with a disability beyond the conventional number of instructional days in a school year and at no cost to the parents. An ESY program must be based on an IEP team decision and meet Idaho standards.
Extracurricular activities. Programs sponsored by a district that are not part of the required curriculum but are offered to further the interests and abilities of students.
FAPE. (See “Free appropriate public education.”)
FERPA. (See “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.”)
Facilitation. A voluntary process during which a neutral and impartial individual, contracted by the SDE, is appointed to conduct an IEP team or other special education related meeting.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). A federal law protecting the privacy of students and parents by mandating that personally identifiable information about a student contained in education records must be kept confidential unless otherwise provided by law. FERPA also contains provisions for access to records by parents, students, staff, and others.
Fluency disorder. Stoppages in the flow of speech that are abnormally frequent and/or abnormally long. These interludes take the form of repetitions of sounds, syllables, or single syllable words; prolongations of sounds; or blockages of airflow and/or voicing in speech.
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). A basic IDEA requirement which states that special education and related services are provided at public expense (free); in conformity with an appropriately developed IEP (appropriate); under public supervision and direction (public); and include preschool, elementary, and secondary education that meets the education standards, regulations, and administrative policies and procedures issued by the State Department of Education (education).
Functional achievement and performance. Gains made by a student which include programming in community living, reading, communication, self-care, social skills, domestic maintenance, recreation, employment or vocational skills. Also called independent living skills.
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA). A systematic process for defining problem behavior and gathering medical, environmental, social, and instructional information that can be used to hypothesize about the function of student behavior.
General education curriculum. The curriculum that is designed for all students, usually consisting of a common core of subjects and curriculum areas adopted by a district that are aligned to the Idaho Achievement Standards or district standards. The general education curriculum is defined by either the Idaho Achievement Standards or the district content standards if they are as rigorous.
General education interventions. Educational interventions designed to address the students using the core and supplemental interventions. Such interventions may include whole- school approaches, scientifically based programs, and positive behavior supports, including accommodations and instructional interventions conducted in the general education environment. These interventions may also include professional development for teachers and other staff to enable such personnel to deliver scientifically based literacy instruction and/or instruction on the use of adaptive and instructional software.
Goal. A measurable statement of desired progress. In an IEP, annual goals must include academic and functional goals designed to meet a child’s needs that result from his or her disability, enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general curriculum, and meet the child’s other educational needs that result from the child’s disability.
Graduation. The point in time when a student meets the district and State requirements for receipt of an Idaho high school diploma.
Guardianship. A judicial determination under which a competent adult has the legal right and duty to deal with problems, make decisions, and give consent for an adult with a disability (at least eighteen (18) years of age) who cannot act on his or her own behalf. The court will specify the nature and scope of the guardian’s authority.
Health services. See “School health services.”
High school. Idaho Statute 33-119 defines secondary school as grades seven (7) through twelve (12) inclusive of any combination thereof. See “secondary school.”
Homebound student. A student whose IEP team determines the child’s home is the least restrictive environment.
Homeless children and youth. Children and youth who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence as defined in the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act.
Homeschool. An education program delivered by parents who have decided to provide instruction in the home and not in a public or private school. A homeschool is a nonpublic school, but is not considered a private school. A virtual public school is not a homeschool.
Homeschooled students. A homeschooled student is one whose parents have decided to provide an educational program in the home with instruction provided by the parents. A homeschool student is considered a nonpublic school student, but is not considered a private school student. A student who is enrolled in a virtual public school is not considered a homeschooled student for the duration that they attend that virtual public school.
Honig Injunction. A court order to remove a special education student from school or current educational placement due to factors of dangerousness. Districts are required to continue with the provision of FAPE.
Idaho content standards. Educational standards in math and English language arts detailing what K-12 students should know at the end of each grade and establishing consistent standards across the states, as well as ensuring that students graduating from high school are prepared to enter credit-bearing courses at two- or four-year college programs or enter the workforce.
Illegal use of drugs. The unlawful use, possession or distribution of substances identified under the Controlled Substances Act, but does not include the use of a drug taken under supervision by a licensed health care professional.
Independent educational evaluation (IEE). One or more assessment(s) conducted by a qualified examiner(s) who is not employed by or contracted by the public agency or district responsible for the education of the student in question.
Individualized education program (IEP). A written document (developed collaboratively by an IEP team made up of parents and school personnel) which outlines the special education program for a student with a disability. This document is developed, reviewed and revised at an IEP team meeting at least annually.
Individualized education program (IEP) team. A team established by the IDEA and comprised but not limited to the student’s general education teacher, a special education teacher, a district representative, parents, the student when appropriate, and other knowledgeable persons. The team is responsible for developing an IEP, determining placement, and reviewing and revising the student’s IEP and placement at least annually.
Individualized family service plan (IFSP). A written individualized plan for an infant or toddler (birth to three (3) years of age) with a disability that is developed by a multidisciplinary team, including the parents, under Part C of the IDEA.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A federal law ensuring services to children with disabilities. The IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to individuals with disabilities. Infants and toddlers with disabilities (birth to two) and their families receive services under IDEA Part C. Children and youth (ages three (3) to twenty-one (21) receive special education and related services under IDEA Part B.
Initial provision of service. The first time that a child with a disability is provided special education and related services. This is also referred to as the “initial placement” and means the first time a parent is offered special education and related services for their child after an initial evaluation and eligibility determination.
In-lieu of transportation. Alternate method of transporting students to and from school.
Instructional intervention. An action or strategy based on an individual student’s problem that is designed to remedy, improve, or eliminate the identified problem.
Intellectual disability. An IDEA disability category in which significant sub-average general intellectual functioning exists concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior. These deficits are manifested during the student’s developmental period and adversely affect the student’s educational performance. The terms “mental retardation” and “cognitive impairment” were previously used to refer to this condition.
Interagency agreement. A written document that defines the coordination between the state and/or public/private agencies and/or districts with respect to the responsibilities of each party for providing and funding special education programs and special education and related services.
Interim alternative educational setting (IAES). The educational setting in which a district may place a student with a disability, for not more than forty-five (45) school days, if the student while at school, on school premises or at a school function carries a weapon or possesses a weapon; knowingly possesses, uses, sells or solicits the sale of illegal drugs or controlled substances; or has inflicted serious bodily injury upon another person. An IAES may also be ordered by a due process hearing officer based upon evidence that maintaining the current placement is substantially likely to result in injury to the student or others.
Interim IEP. A short-term IEP with all the components of a standard IEP developed by the IEP team. It may be used for students transferring from other districts pending the development of the standard IEP or other purposes as needed.
Interpreting services. The process of providing accessible communication between and among persons who are deaf, hard of hearing, or deaf-blind, and those who are hearing. The process includes, but is not limited to, communication between American Sign Language or other form of manual communication and English. The process may also involve various other modalities that involve visual, gestural and tactile methods including oral transliteration services, cued language transliteration services, sign language transliteration and interpreting services, and transcription services, such as communication access real-time translation (CART), C-Print, and TypeWell.
Itinerant specialist. A teacher who normally travels and provides services to students in different schools or in the home or consults with teachers and administrators.
Joint custody. A court order awarding custody of a minor child to both parents and providing that physical and/or legal custody shall be shared by the parents.
Joint legal custody. A court order providing that the parents of a child are required to share the decision-making rights, responsibilities, and authority relating to the health, education, and general welfare of the child.
Joint physical custody. A court order awarding each parent significant periods of time in which a child resides with or is under the care and supervision of each parent. The actual amount of time is determined by the court.
Language impairment. An IDEA disability category in which a delay or disorder exists in the development of comprehension and/or the uses of spoken or written language and/or other symbol systems and which adversely affects the student’s educational performance. A language impairment may involve any one or a combination of the following: the form of language (morphological and syntactic systems); the content of language (semantic systems); and/or the function of language in communication (pragmatic systems).
Learning disability. See “specific learning disability.”
Least restrictive environment (LRE). The IDEA requirement that students with disabilities, including those in public or private institutions or other care facilities, be educated with students who are nondisabled to the maximum extent appropriate.
Limited English proficient (LEP). An individual aged three (3) to twenty-one (21), who is enrolled or preparing to enroll in elementary or secondary school, he or she was not born in the United States or his or her native language is a language other than English; he or she is a Native American or Alaska Native, or a native resident of the outlying areas; he or she comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on the individuals level of English language proficiency; or the individual is migratory, whose native language is a language other than English, and who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant. The LEP individual’s difficulties in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language may be sufficient to deny the him or her the ability to meet the State’s proficient level of achievement on State assessments; the ability to successfully achieve in classrooms where the language of instruction is English; or the opportunity to participate fully in society.
Listening comprehension. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, refers to the understanding of the implications and explicit meanings of words and sentences of spoken language. This includes following directions, comprehending questions, and listening and comprehending in order to learn (e.g., auditory attention, auditory memory, and auditory perception). Listening comprehension also includes the ability to make connections to previous learning.
Local district. See “district” and “local educational agency (LEA).”
Local educational agency (LEA). A public board of education or other public authority legally constituted within a State for either administrative control or direction of, or to perform a service function for, public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district, or other political subdivision of a State, or for a combination of school districts or counties as are recognized in a State as an administrative agency for its public elementary schools or secondary schools. See “district.”
Manifestation determination. A determination by the parent and relevant members of the IEP team of whether the conduct in question was caused by or had a direct and substantial relationship to the student’s disability or if the conduct in question was the direct result of the LEA’s failure to implement the IEP.
Mathematics calculation. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, this refers to the knowledge and retrieval of mathematical facts and the application of procedural knowledge in computation.
Mathematics problem solving. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, refers to the ability to apply mathematical concepts and understandings to real-world situations, often through word problems. It is the functional combination of computation knowledge and application knowledge, and involves the use of mathematical computation skills and fluency, language, reasoning, reading, and visual-spatial skills in solving problems. Essentially, it is applying mathematical knowledge at the conceptual level.
McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This law is designed to address the problems that homeless children and youth have faced in enrolling, attending, and succeeding in school. Under this law, state educational agencies (SEAs) must ensure that each homeless child and youth has equal access to the same free, appropriate public education, including a public preschool education, as other children and youth.
Mediation. A voluntary, confidential, and structured process during which an SDE-contracted individual is appointed to serve as an impartial and neutral third party to help
s parents and district or agency personnel resolve an IDEA-related conflict. Mediation usually results in a written, legally-binding agreement that is mutually acceptable to both parties and enforceable in court.
Medicaid services (school-based). Those services, assessment, and plan development for students receiving Medicaid which school districts may bill for reimbursement with the consent of the parent.
Medical services. Medical services mean services provided by a licensed physician to determine a child's medically related disability that results in the child's need for special education and related services.
Middle school. A middle school is a school that does not meet the definition of an elementary school and contains grade eight (8) but does not contain grade twelve (12).
Migrant student. A student who has not graduated from high school or completed a high school equivalency certificate and resides within a family that is composed of migrant fisher or agricultural workers. The student has moved within the preceding thirty-six (36) months in order for the family to obtain or seek this type of temporary or seasonal employment that is a principal means of livelihood.
Monitoring. An activity conducted by the State Department of Education to review a school district’s compliance with federal laws, regulations, and state rules.
Multiple disabilities. An IDEA disability category in which two or more impairments co-exist (excluding deaf-blindness), whose combination causes such severe educational needs that the student cannot be accommodated in special education services designed solely for one of the impairments.
Multi-tiered system of support (MTSS). A systemic educational practice of matching educational instruction and interventions to the needs of students. MTSS is a data- driven model involving frequent monitoring of student progress to determining if interventions are needed to improve individual student outcomes using evidenced- based practices.
Native language. The language or mode of communication normally used by an individual or, in the case of a student, the language normally used by the student’s parents. In all direct contact with a student, the native language would be the language or mode of communication normally used by the student in the home or learning environment.
New teacher. A teacher who has less than one (1) year of teaching experience.
Nonpublic school. An educational institution or program providing instruction outside a public school, including but not limited to a private school or homeschool.
Nonpublic student. Any student who receives educational instruction outside of a public school, including but not limited to a private school or homeschool student.
Nonprofit. The term ‘nonprofit,’ as applied to a school, agency, organization, or institution, means a school, agency, organization, or institution owned and operated by one (1) or more nonprofit corporations or associations no part of the net earnings of which inures, or may lawfully inure, to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.
Nursing services. See “School health services.”
Objectives. Measurable, intermediate steps that describe the progress the student is expected to make toward an annual goal in a specified amount of time; similar to a benchmark.
Occupational therapist. A professional licensed by the Occupational Therapy Licensure Board of Idaho who, in a school setting, is responsible for assessing fine motor skills, including student’s use of hands and fingers and developing and implementing plans for improving related motor skills. The occupational therapist focuses on daily living skills such as eating, dressing, schoolwork, play, and leisure.
Office of special education programs (OSEP). The branch of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) within the U.S. Department of Education which is responsible for administering programs relating to the free appropriate public education to all eligible beneficiaries under the IDEA.
Oral expression. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, the ability to convey wants, needs, thoughts, and ideas in a meaningful way using appropriate syntactic, pragmatic, semantic, and phonological language structures. It relates to a student’s ability to express ideas, explain thinking, retell stories, categorize, and compare and contrast concepts or ideas, make references, and problem solve verbally.
Orientation and mobility (O&M) services. Services provided by qualified personnel to blind and visually impaired students by qualified personnel to enable these students to attain systematic orientation to and safe movement within the home, school, and community, including teaching (1) spatial and environmental concepts and use of information received by the senses to establish, maintain, or regain orientation and line of travel; (2) use of the long white cane, or a service animal, as appropriate to supplement visual travel skills or as a tool for safely negotiating the environment for students with no available travel vision; (3) understanding and use of remaining vision and distance low vision aids; and (4) other concepts, techniques, and tools.
Orthopedic impairment. An IDEA disability category that includes severe orthopedic impairments that adversely affects a student’s educational performance and are caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of an appendage, etc.); disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.); or from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause ontracture).
Other health impairment (OHI). An IDEA disability category in which a student exhibits limited strength, vitality or alertness, including heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with the respect to the educational environment that is due to chronic or acute health problems (such as asthma, ADD or ADHD, cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, Tourette syndrome and stroke) to such a degree that it adversely affects the student’s educational performance.
Paraprofessional. A noncertified, non-licensed individual who is employed by a district and who is appropriately qualified, trained and supervised in accordance with state standards to assist in the provision of special education and related services.
Parent. As defined by IDEA, a parent is: (1) a biological or adoptive parent of a child; (2) a foster parent who has lived with the child for six (6) or more months; (3) a guardian generally authorized to act as the child’s parent, or authorized to make educational decisions for the child (but not the State if the child is a ward of the State); (4) An individual acting in the place of a biological or adoptive parent (including a grandparent, stepparent, or other relative) with whom the child lives, or an individual who is legally responsible for the child’s welfare; or (5) A surrogate parent who has been appointed by the school district. If the child is a ward of the state, the judge overseeing the child’s case may appoint the surrogate. The surrogate may not be an employee of the state or local education agency or any other agency that is involved in the education or care of the child, has no personal or professional interest which conflicts with the interest of the child, has knowledge and skills that ensure adequate representation of the child.
Part B. Part of the IDEA that relates to the assistance to states for the education of students with disabilities who are ages three (3) through the semester in which a student turns twenty-one (21). Part B is administered by the State Department of Education and carried out by school districts and other public agencies.
Part C. Part of the IDEA that relates to the assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and the early intervention programs for infants and toddlers, ages birth through two (2), with disabilities. In Idaho, Part C is administered by the Department of Health and Welfare.
Peer-reviewed research. A higher level of non-biased research, which has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective and scientific review.
Personally identifiable information (PII). Includes but not limited to, student’s name, name of parent or other family member, address of student or family, social security number, student number, list of personal characteristics, or other information that would make it possible to identify the student with reasonable certainty.
Phonology. The process used in our language that has common elements (sound patterns) which affect different sounds.
Phonology disorders. Phonology disorders are errors involving phonemes, sound patterns and the rules governing their combinations.
Physical therapist. A professional licensed by the Idaho Physical Therapy Licensure Board who, in the school setting, assesses students’ needs and provides interventions related to gross motor skills. In working with students with disabilities, the physical therapist provides treatment to increase muscle strength, mobility, endurance, physical movement and range of motion; improve posture, gait and body awareness; and monitor function, fit and proper use of mobility aids and devices.
Plan for improving results (PIR). A plan developed collaboratively between the SDE and a district to address needs identified as a result of the district’s self-evaluation and/or an SDE monitoring visit.
Positive behavioral intervention and supports (PBIS). Positive reinforcement, rewards or consequences provided to a child for specific instances of behavior that impedes learning or the learning of others (or refraining from behavior) as appropriate for the purpose of allowing the student to meet his or her behavioral goals/benchmarks.
Power of attorney. The designation, in writing, by a competent person of another to act in place of or on behalf of another person.
Present level of performance (PLOP) or Present levels of academic achievement and functional performance (PLAAFP). Used interchangeably, these area statement of the student’s current level of achievement or development in an area of need and how the student’s disability affects his or her involvement and progress in the general education curriculum offered to students without disabilities. For preschool students, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child’s participation in appropriate activities.
Private school. A nonpublic school that is not funded by or under federal or state control or supervision. A homeschool is not a private school.
Private school student. Any student who receives educational instruction in a school not funded by or under federal or state control or supervision is considered a nonpublic private school student. A homeschool student is not a private school student.
Problem-solving team. A general education team established at the local level, whose name may vary, with the purpose to problem solve regarding the educational needs of any student. Procedures, meeting schedules, and team membership are established locally. The team is likely to include general educators and administrators and could include counselors, specialists, and special education personnel. Parent participation is valuable, but not required.
Procedural safeguards. The requirements of Part B of the IDEA that are designed to allow a parent/adult student to participate meaningfully in decisions concerning an appropriate educational program for a student with a disability and, if necessary, dispute such decisions. Also referred to as special education rights.
Professional development. High-quality comprehensive programs that are essential to ensure that persons responsible for the education or transition of students with disabilities possess the skills necessary to address the educational and related needs of these students. These should be scientifically-based and reflect successful practices including strategies for recruiting, hiring, preparing and retaining personnel.
Public expense. When a district or public agency either pays for the full cost of an evaluation or special education services or ensures that it is otherwise provided at no cost to the parent; for example, through joint agreements with other state agencies.
Reading components. The term “reading” means a complex system of deriving meaning from print that requires all of the following skills, which are the essential components of reading instruction: (1) Phonemic awareness: The skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes, or speech sounds, are connected to print; (2) Phonics: The ability to decode unfamiliar words; (3) Reading fluency: The ability to read fluently; (4) Vocabulary development: Sufficient background information and vocabulary to foster reading comprehension; and (5) Reading comprehension: The development of appropriate active strategies to construct meaning from print.
Reading comprehension. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, refers to the ability to understand and make meaning of written text and includes a multifaceted set of skills. Reading comprehension is influenced by oral language development including new vocabulary acquisition, listening comprehension, working memory, application of comprehension-monitoring strategies, and understanding of text structure including titles, paragraphing, illustrations, and other details. Reading comprehension is significantly affected by basic reading skills.
Reading fluency. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, refer to the ability to read words and text accurately, using age-appropriate chunking strategies and a repertoire of sight words, and with appropriate rate, phrasing, and expression (prosody). Reading fluency facilitates reading comprehension.
Reasonable measures. A combination of recorded written and/or oral documentation to meet notification requirements of the district to parents/adult students.
Reasonable time. A period of ten (10) calendar days unless there are exceptional circumstances that warrant a shortened period of time such as an emergency or disciplinary meeting.
Reevaluation. A periodic evaluation conducted at least every three years, or more frequently if conditions warrant, or if the student’s parent or teacher requests an evaluation of a student already identified as eligible for services under the IDEA. Reevaluations may occur not more than once a year, unless the parent and the district agree otherwise or may be waived by the parent and LEA.
Related services. Refers to transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services required to assist a student with a disability to benefit from special education and includes the following: speech therapy, language therapy, audiology services, psychological services, physical therapy, occupational therapy, recreation, therapeutic recreation, early identification and assessment of disabilities in children, counseling services, rehabilitation counseling, orientation and mobility services, interpreting services, medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes, school health/nursing services (excluding surgically implanted medical devices), social work services in schools, and parent counseling and training.
Response to intervention (RTI). A formal process for evaluating student response to scientifically research-based interventions, consisting of the core components of: (1) problem identification, (2) problem analysis, (3) applying research-based interventions, and (4) progress monitoring/decisions rules. As used in the IDEA, RTI is only mentioned as an alternative to the severe discrepancy criteria in determining whether a student has a Specific Learning Disability.
Resolution session. A meeting involving the parents, relevant members of the IEP team, and a representative of the district who has decision-making authority, required prior to a due process hearing if the parent has requested the due process hearing.
School-age. Includes all persons between the ages of five (5) (i.e., turns five (5) on or before September 1) and twenty-one (21) years who reside in Idaho. For students with disabilities who qualify for special education and related services under the IDEA, school-age begins at age three (3) and continues through the semester of school in which the student attains the age of twenty-one (21).
School day. Any day, including a partial day, when all students are in attendance at school for instructional purposes.
School health services. School health services and school nurse services means health services that are designed to enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE as described in the child's IEP. School nurse services are services provided by a qualified school nurse.
School health services are services that may be provided by either a qualified school nurse or other qualified person.
School psychologist. A professional who holds an Idaho Pupil Personnel Services Certificate with an endorsement in Psychology and is charged with the responsibility to conduct assessments and determine a student’s cognitive, academic, social, emotional, and/or behavioral functioning. This professional also provides direct services to students, consults with district staff, and may be a member of the evaluation and/or IEP team.
Scientifically-based research (SBR). Scientifically based research (as defined in the ESEA) means research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs; and includes research that (1) employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment; (2) involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn; (3) relies on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and valid data across evaluators and observers, across multiple measurements and observations, and across studies by the same or different investigators; (4) is evaluated using experimental or quasi-experimental designs in which individuals, entities, programs, or activities are assigned to different conditions and with appropriate controls to evaluate the effects of the condition of interest, with a preference for random-assignment experiments, or other designs to the extent that those designs contain within-condition or across- condition controls; (5) ensures that experimental studies are presented in sufficient detail and clarity to allow for replication or, at a minimum, offer the opportunity to build systematically on their findings; and (6) has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review.
Screening. An informal, although organized process, of identifying students who are not meeting or who may not be meeting Idaho Content Standards.
Secondary school. The term “secondary school” means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public secondary charter school, that provides secondary education, as determined under State law, except that it does not include any education beyond grade. The term secondary school is not defined in Idaho Code. See “high school.”
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. A federal law designed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive Federal financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Education (ED). Section 504 provides: "No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States . . . shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance . . ."
Secular. An adjective used to describe a private, non-religious educational entity.
Serious bodily injury (SBI). Bodily injury which involves (1) a substantial risk of death; (2) extreme physical pain; (3) protracted and obvious disfigurement; or (4) protracted loss or impairment of the function of bodily member, organ, or mental faculty.
Services plan (SP). Services plan means a written statement that describes the special education and related services the LEA will provide to a parentally-placed child with a disability enrolled in a private school who has been designated to receive services, including the location of the services and any transportation necessary.
Setting. The location where special education services occur.
Significant cognitive impairment. A designation given to a small number of students with disabilities for the purposes of their participation in AAs. Having a significant cognitive impairment is not solely determined by an IQ test score, nor based on a specific disability category, but rather a complete understanding of the complex needs of a student. Students with significant cognitive impairments have a disability or multiple disabilities that significantly impact their adaptive skills and intellectual functioning. These students have adaptive skills well below average in two or more skill areas and intellectual functioning well below average (typically associated with an IQ below 55).
Social worker. A professional who holds an Idaho Pupil Personnel Services Certificate with an endorsement in Social Work and helps students and teachers address social and emotional issues. This professional may be a member of the evaluation and/or IEP team.
Socially maladjusted. A child who has a persistent pattern of violating societal norms with truancy, substance abuse, a perpetual struggle with authority, is easily frustrated, impulsive, and manipulative.
Special education. Specially designed instruction or speech/language therapy at no cost to the parent to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability including instruction in the classroom, the home, hospitals, institutions, and other settings; instruction in physical education; speech therapy and language therapy; transition services; travel training; assistive technology services; and vocational education.
Special educational placement. Refers to the provision of special education services along the continuum of placements under the least restrictive environment requirements, rather than a specific place or location, such as a specific classroom or school. The balance of setting and services to meet an individual student’s needs.
Specially designed instruction. Adapting the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to address the unique needs of an eligible student that result from the student’s disability and to ensure access to the general education curriculum so that the student can meet the education standards of that district that apply to all students.
Specific learning disability (SLD). A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Specific Learning Disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of intellectual disability, of emotional behavioral disorder, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Speech impairment. A speech-language disorder, such as speech fluency, impaired articulation/phonology, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a student’s educational performance.
Speech-language pathologist. A professional holding an Idaho Pupil Personnel Services Certificate who can assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. This professional coordinates with and may be a member of the evaluation and IEP teams.
Student (school-age). For resident children with disabilities who qualify for special education and related services under the IDEA and subsequent amendments thereto, and applicable state and federal regulations, “school-age” shall begin at the attainment of age three (3) and shall continue through the semester of school in which the student attains the age of twenty-one (21) years.
Stay put. A requirement that a district or agency maintain a student with a disability in his or her present educational placement while a due process hearing or subsequent judicial proceeding is pending unless the parties agree otherwise.
Substantial evidence. A legal term that means “beyond a preponderance of the evidence” or “beyond more likely than not.”
Summary of performance (SOP). A document given to secondary students when a student exits special education as a result of earning a diploma or aging out. This document describes the academic achievement and functional performance along with recommendations to assist the student in meeting post-secondary goals.
Supplementary aids and services. Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.
Surrogate parent. An individual assigned and trained by a district or an agency to assume the rights and responsibilities of a parent under the IDEA when no parent can be identified or located for a particular student or when the child is a ward of the state.
Suspension. A temporary stop, delay, interruption, or cessation of educational service due to a violation of the student conduct code. This may include in-school suspension.
Traditional public school. "Traditional public school" means any school existing or to be built that is operated and controlled by a school district in this state as per Idaho Statute, Chapter 33-5202A(7).
Transition age student. A student whose upcoming IEP will be in effect when the student is sixteen (16) to twenty-one (21) years of age.
Transition services. A coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability designed within a results oriented process focused on improving the academic and functional achievement of the student to facilitate the student’s movement from school to post- school activities. Services are based on individual student needs addressing instruction, related services, community experiences, employment, post-school adult living objectives, and, when appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI). An IDEA disability category that refers to an injury to the brain caused by an external physical force and resulting in a total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas such as cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory perception and motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing, and speech. The term does not apply to congenital or degenerative brain injuries or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
Travel training. Instruction to students with significant cognitive impairments and any other students with disabilities who require instruction to enable them to develop an awareness of the environment in which they live and to learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within the home, school, and community.
Twice exceptional. Twice exceptional students are identified as gifted/ talented in one or more areas of exceptionality (specific academics, general intellectual ability, creativity, leadership, visual or performing arts) and also identified with a disability defined by State eligibility criteria (SLD, ED, Autism, Orthopedic Impairments,etc.) that qualifies the student for an IEP.
Unilateral placement. A decision by a parent, at his or her own discretion, to remove his or her child with a disability from a public school and enroll the student in a private facility because the parent believes that the district did not provide FAPE in a timely manner.
Universal design. A concept or philosophy for designing and delivering products and services that are usable by people with the widest possible range of functional capabilities, which include products and services that are directly usable (without requiring assistive technologies) and products and service that are made usable with assistive technologies.
Visual impairment including blindness. An IDEA disability category characterized by an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a student’s educational performance. The term includes partial sight, which refers to the ability to use vision as one channel of learning if educational materials are adapted, and blindness.
Voice disorder. (See “speech impairment”) Refers to the absence or abnormal production of voice quality, pitch, intensity, or resonance. Voice disorders may be the result of a functional or an organic condition.
Voluntary enrollment in a private placement. Enrollment by a parent of a student with a disability in a private facility or homeschool for religious, philosophical, curricular, or other personal reasons.
Ward of the state. A child who, as determined by the State where the child resides, is a foster child (unless the foster parent meets the definition of a “parent” in Section 34 CFR §300.30), a ward of the State, or in the custody of a public child welfare agency.
Weapon. (See “dangerous weapon”)
Written expression. For the purpose of specific learning disability eligibility, the processes related to the transcription of ideas and thoughts into a written product, such as handwriting and spelling. It also involves generative processes such as the communication of ideas, thoughts, and feelings. Required skills include using oral language, thought, grammar, text fluency, sentence construction, and planning to produce a written product.
Written notice. A written statement provided by the district to a parent/adult student within a reasonable amount of time before proposing or refusing to initiate or change to the identification, evaluation, educational placement, or the provision of FAPE.